Saturday, June 20, 2020

MGT5000 Management and Organizational Behavior Research - 275 Words

MGT5000 Management and Organizational Behavior Research (Research Paper Sample) Content: MGT5000 MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORBy (Name)The Name of the Class (Course)Professor (Tutor)The Name of the School (University)The City and State where it is located The DateExecutive summerySupply chain management is getting on spotlight as the determinant of whether a company will achieve its financial objectives or not. Most firms are now depending on supply chain management for sustainable growth and positioning. Supply chains should therefore be efficient, lean and capable of creating value. Competition take note of supply chain and companies should be able to create a lean system packed by advanced progressive technology. This report will explain the need to pay attention to supply chain management and how creative integration of Real Time Location System can enable a company to enjoy a market position and efficiency that can not be easily replicated by competitors. This will enable a firm to access a competitive advantage.This paper will explore the i mplementation of RTLS into the activities of supply chain in a manner that will improve efficiency without incurring unnecessary cost. RTLS is highly recommended for its accuracy and flexibility. This is quite a new technology in business sector and the firs company to meaningfully integrate it with there business processes will access the supply the competitive advantage. Implication and risks associated to the technology are limited. Because they are still risks, they will given much attention to ensure that thee firm in question rip much benefit from it its positive recommendation here given.1.0. IntroductionRTLS is an application that tracks geolocation of a target object (Bandi, 2014 p. 2). The target can be anything including people. Real-time locating system is a reliable and accurate technology that automatically sends the location of items or people to a remote place. It has had a wide range of application including health care, military training, security and lately busine ss operations. The technology may be implemented on different platforms that include Wi-Fi, UWB and WhereNet. The platform depends on the targets to be tracked and the space area to be covered.Technology has become the primary agent of change and impetus for improving business practices in modern times. Most inventions have been inspired by need if not accidentally stumbled on. Security threats of our time, military prowess of other countries like Russia and China have for instanced made the US army to set up multi-billion military and aviation research facilities. Businesses just like nations face threats from resilient competitors. It is, therefore, imperative for a business organization to stay afloat in terms of constructive technologies. Most technologies do not have much implication of business positioning and are treated as trends that need to be lived with. Such technologies are usually available for the firm to modify the according to its capability. Some technologies are r evolutionary and firms are willing to pay hefty prices for it.Mobility and wireless communication have been marked trendy and adapted by most companies. Such technologies are exciting but it is not clear how they impact the supply chain management or how such trendy invention helps the firm in positioning and improving efficiency. This report will explore technology relevant to supply chain process and potential impacts of such technology on supply chain management. There are a number of new technologies relevant to supply chain management, but close attention will be given to Real-time location systems (RTLS) in this paper.2.0. Competitive aspects of supply chain management.The supply chain is a set of companies directly linked to the downstream or upstream by one or more other companies. It enhances the flow of information and products from the source to the user. The supply chain can be viewed as all activities required of a business unit(s) satisfy customers' demands. With incre ased efficiency in supply chain management, firms around the world are product high quality and innovative products. The speed at which products are introduced into the market or innovated is high. This is makes products "perishable". If products take too long to reach the potential consumer, there is no guarantee that competitors will have superior products in the market. Competition has shifted from dominating factors of production and lines of distribution to targeting potential buyers with a relevant product at the right time and competitive price. Logistics contribute immensely to the cost of production and sells and, therefore, determine the price at which products will be sold. Most products with the exception of luxurious products are price sensitive. An effective and efficient supply chain will allow the firm offer products at a competitive price. To access a competitive advantage, a firm should be able adapt innovative products and supply practices that cannot be easily em ulated by competitor i.e. offering a "moving target" to the competitors. The concept of moving target is not contrary to the traditions of brand marketing. While it is important to keep tradition features of q widely accepted, it is important to realize that consumers' tests and preferences are dynamic. It is possible to predict the future demand of certain target groups using technology and competitors actions. Products, product delivery services and other necessary engagement can be attached to an available relevant progressive technology.3.0. Building Blocks for incorporating RLTS into business processesEnterprise-wide coverage: clearly defining location, status and movement of objects to be tracked. RTLS has its limitations that include incapability to operate over a wide area. Unlike GPS, RTLS depend on multiple tags that should be within the proximity of the targets to be tracked. The size of an area to be covered determines the system to be used.3.1. Accuracy desired- differe nt system designs determine the accuracy of the position of the object. Positions are two-dimensional and therefore based on approximation. The more the number of signal projection tags the clearer the exact location of an item.3. 2. Interoperability- RTLS has no forms of intelligence and should be supported by a standard-based technology that will enhance will provide location and status information to the end user. And example of such supportive technologies includes the open API (Application Programming Interface) 3.3.The cost of installation and maintenance- Businesses are profit and growth oriented. The cost of installing a new technology should be considered in line with expected returns and impact on business performance. Although RTLS is pricey that other wireless technologies that could be integrated into the company's supply chain, some hefty benefits may accrue if RTLS in procured. Objectives of the organization will also be considered to enquire if the company has intent ions to run the business for a length of time that will allow the company to rip the benefits.3.4. Reducing financial risks- insurance is always available to gap the risks of uncertainty in the business venture. Since RTLS is a new phenomenon to the business community, covers may be miscalculated and may end up being extremely high due to very little number of companies covered under the same risk. When who are among the first people to employ a new technology, it is important to consider other options other than insurance covers. Such options may include partnering with companies that provide shared risks acquisition model.4.0. Benefits of RTLS technology to a businessReal time information empowers the business with high odder of intelligence. Reaction time that a firm takes to respond to occasions is shorter. This saves time and resource and can a source of competitive advantage of competitors do have such a progressive system. Decision makers access relevant information on real t ime. The flexibility of the RTSL technology provides for its applications in multiple areas. The benefits of RTLS technology have not been widely acknowledged to the perception that its expensive and no real value could attach to it. This was because the technology had not been well demystified, and firms did not probably know where such technology could be applied. RTSL uses already existing infrastructure, and this cuts down the installation cost considerably. The fact that RTSL has been ignored for long has allowed advancement and customization before it is widely available in the market. This technology is well implemented in the right setting, will a source of competitive advantage and very likely increment of profits.5.0. Overview of implementing the technologyRTSL is the ultimate choice for today's pressure especially in the supply curve. The business model that is commonly employed is become more mobile and decentralized. RTSL is an advanced technology that is way beyond oth er AIDC (Automatic Identification and data Capture). It is more accurate and efficient, and cost friendly compared to other systems since it can rely on existing infrastructure.The military may have triggered demand for the RTLS by incorporating it into their practices (Q-tract, 2010) but by yet areas of application need to be identified and ensure red that integration of the system bring in some value. Eventually most firms will see that need of such system. Being the first strategically integrate a progressively interpret the technology in relevant process is a source of competitive advantage. To keep the firm at an advantage, such technology must be reviewed forward as soon as an upgrade is available this will enable the company to remain competitive and efficient. Technology may offer efficiency, speed and accuracy but the process itself should be well organized according to how the technology works. Apart from efficiencies, RTLS reduces human re...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Order Term Papers

Order Term PapersOrder term papers are small documents that are designed to complete the details of the subject matter of a course. The documents, which are called 'order papers', present all the basic information about the topic, as well as the data on the course itself. This involves such important details as course name, instructor, etc. The student needs to supply these documents to the instructor so that he can verify the course material to ensure it is correct.There are various types of papers, which you will need to make sure you choose wisely and properly. One such type is the examination papers. These are usually required for certain examination. Also the names of the examination papers vary.The examinations involve tests of certain subjects that are expected from the students. Most of these types of examinations involve taking an exam. All the examinations are sent to colleges by the college itself. Some will have pre-tests, which involve preparing for the actual exam. This is also one of the most important papers, because it gives the test taker more opportunity to prepare for the actual exam.The papers are prepared for the examination, in many ways. Some are used for the application form of the college, or for the certification of qualifications, but they also help the student to prepare for the actual examination. The tests, such as the CCNA exam, and others are very thorough and are needed for them to be successful. The application forms for the CCNA exam are quite extensive, which has to be filled up correctly.The college can require one or several papers, depending on the academic criteria. There are many such papers, and all of them have different forms. The usual form would be the general one, where the student has to provide the personal information of himself and the subjects. The test-taker can supply any other information, which is allowed by the college.This form is also used by the college to fill up the papers for the various exams, in case the student has not taken the test. The examination papers are mostly submitted by the student and then sent to the school. It is the responsibility of the college to ensure that the papers are filled up correctly.You can also look for the alternative means of completing the order term papers, which may save some time and money. To get a better option, the student can go online, where he can find numerous sites offering different types of papers. These paper sites offer a variety of options and at a reasonable price.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Savagery Of The Islamic State - 1502 Words

Before analyzing the savagery of the Islamic State, it is imperative to distinguish their beliefs from those of practical Muslims. ISIS is a Sunni jihadist (extremist) group-their ideology is reminiscent of the old-school views of the Muslim Brotherhood, and many of their principles are the same embraced by Al-Qaeda. In adopting extreme anti-Western interpretations of Islam, its adherents promote religious violence to oust â€Å"infidels† or â€Å"apostates† who threaten ‘their’ faith. Although these â€Å"disciples† are technically Sunnis, they have been classified as Kharijites-Muslims who have deviated from mainstream Islam, by the United States. (U.S. Senate) These â€Å"Kharijites† want to install a Salafist (authentic)-oriented Islamic state in Syria,†¦show more content†¦Even though its articles resemble those of the UDHR, the CDHRI is a non-Western perspective of human rights. (UMinn) By the same token, it affirms that â€Å" all rights and freedoms stipulated under the Declaration are subject to Islamic shari’a.† Shari’a does not refer to individual rights-it focuses more on mutual obligations. (UMinn) Basically, Muslims are more concerned about protecting their religion rather than themselves. Unlike ISIS, they do not overlook basic rights or chastise anyone who opposes their beliefs. With this in mind, it is important to appreciate Islamic ideals and not sort them into the objectives of the Islamic State. (Losano) For months, the Islamic State has violated the rights of thousands of Iraqis and Syrians. The Yazidis and the Assyrians have been the main victims of ISIL, along with the Shia Muslims, because of their â€Å"satanic† beliefs. How severe is the violence? Well, al-Qaeda thought it was â€Å"too† excessive. (Bird) ISIS does not just kill people-they torture, mutilate, rob, and humiliate anyone who contradicts their â€Å"faith†. They have abducted thousands of civilians, and more than 830,000 indigenous peoples have fled their homes in fear of persecution. Villages such as Sinjar (at least 200 children dead), Mosul (3,000 Christians fled), Hardan (250-300 killed), Khana Sor (100 killed), Dhola (50 killed), Ramadi Jabal, al-Shimal, Khocho, Jadala, and Beshir have been ransacked and deserted. (OHCHR) In August, the United Nations

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Role Of Culture And Its Influence On Culture - 3382 Words

Topic 3 – Role of Culture Culture can be defined as customs, attitudes and beliefs that is shared throughout a group of members that is part of society. These attitudes, customs and beliefs are passed down from generation to generation (Ali Abadi 2015). However, as time progress some cultures may change slightly, but still keep the most distinctive aspects that are unique to a particular culture. Culture is important because, it defines our values and beliefs, and that is, essentially, what guides the decisions we make (Kumar 2012). Culture plays a big role in how we behave in specific situations and how we perceive the world around us. Culture determines how its members interact with each other. According to Griffin and Pustay (2007) the global environment is impacted by the elements of culture. These elements includes social structure, religion, communication methods, language, norms and attitudes. Cultures can also be collectivist, which is when the needs and goals of the culture as a whole is placed above the needs and goals of an individual, or individualist, which is when individual needs take priority over collective needs of a group (Cherry 2015). For this reason it can be said that one’s culture influences one’s drive to work, what one would expect the work place to be like and how the workplace operates on a daily basis as well how to treat co-workers or what treatment to expect from co-workers (Ali Abadi 2015). For example, there are some cultural differencesShow MoreRelatedThe Role Of Roman Influence On Western Culture And Civilization1811 Words   |  8 PagesThere are amazing moments in history we take for granted because we lack the understanding of their significance. Roman influences have a dominating presence on western culture and civilization. To subtract these influences from our ethos would leave a cavernous hole in our western identities. However, Rome had to fight for it’s power and position; often against impressive rivals. One of the most noteworthy battles fought by the Romans are the Punic wars, a series of three battles that span roughlyRead MoreOrganizational Culture Is Within The Co ntrol Of Management1730 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Interest in the area of corporate culture is said to have originated in the 1970s as a response to the success of Japanese management and the perceived failure of traditional organizational analysis (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv Sanders, 1990; Ouchi, 1985; Martin Frost, 1999). Since then, research has flourished, with particular emphasis placed on the link between culture and corporate performance (Kilmann, Saxton Serpa, 1985). Observations of the most well-known, best run companiesRead MoreLeadership and Organizational Culture Essay1310 Words   |  6 PagesLEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE In this paper I will discuss the effects and responsibilities leaders have on an organizational culture. I believe leaders have an enormous effect on the well-being of an organizational culture. Leaders must take an active role within their organizations culture. Whether positive or negative, in an organization, things tend to follow suit down hill. A leader has the power and influence to maintain, create, or repair an organizational culture. However, this can proveRead MoreSocio-Cultural Influences On Sexuality. Socio-Cultural1156 Words   |  5 PagesSocio-Cultural Influences on Sexuality Socio-cultural influence plays a major role in sexual behaviors. It gives a better comprehension on why men are men and women are women. These socio-cultural are influenced by physical, emotional, cultural and economic aspects. Time and time again research has proven that socio-cultural influences have a significant role in human sexuality. Culture is the manner of life of the people. Thus, culture shapes the ideas of what behaviors are acceptable for men andRead MoreHarrison Typology1536 Words   |  7 PagesHarrison: Typologies of Organisational Culture These are rough, lecture note summaries only Handy reporting the work of Harrison, suggests that organisations can be classified under four cultures: POWER CULTURE Many small enterprises and large conglomerates such display the characteristics of a centralised power culture. Even Mintzberg recognises this in his account of a divisionalised structure. This model is very like Weber s Charismatic organisation. It is like a web with a ruling spiderRead MoreAnalysis Of Kenneth V. Hardy And Tracey A. Laszloffy1401 Words   |  6 Pagesto get to learn more about my family and I in terms of culture. Kenneth V. Hardy and Tracey A. Laszloffy (1995), explained that one does not become conscious of actions, thoughts, or biases until they are processed intellectually, which is what this assignment allowed for. With that said, I will discuss and identify personal assumptions and biases I held of my interviewees, my ethnic and cultural heritage and the positive/negative influences it has had on myself, and lastly, the way I view my familyRead MoreEffect of Media and Mass Communication Essay1386 Words   |  6 Pageswithin modern culture. Culture can be defined as the norms and values of a society. In our culture, the communications media hold an influential place in disseminating information, forming attitudes, and motivating behaviour. Tech nological advances are increasing the role of the media and its capacity to shape public opinion. Our society depends on the news media to provide information to help us form opinions and make voting decisions. It is clear the media has a huge impact on our culture. The mediaRead MoreInfluence Of Western Culture1186 Words   |  5 Pages WESTERN CULTURES SHOULD/SHOULD NOT DOMINATE AND INFLUENCE OTHER CULTURES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD (Name) (Course) (Date) Globalization is in most cases seen as global Westernization with the Western culture seeking to dominate the world. Globalization is the acceleration and intensification of the economic interactions between governments, companies, and individuals of a different culture. The Western culture played a paramount role in promoting globalization and democracy acrossRead MoreOrganizational Culture And Human Behavior1323 Words   |  6 Pagesproject’s success is the behavior of the employees. Employee behavior is influenced by organizational culture and leadership. This paper will briefly explore the influence organizational culture and human behavior have on the success of projects, in particular projects plagued with conflict. First, this paper will discuss the influences organizational culture has on the success of projects. Secondly, the role project leadership plays in the success of projects and how project managers can build and manageRead MoreLeadership Theory And Organizational Culture1361 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract The role of leadership has evolved over the years. Early leadership theories focused on the characteristics of the leader and have shifted to focus on the leader’s behavior, skills and style. Emerging leadership theories continued to shift focus to team leadership and subordinate motivation. Organizational culture is exists in all organizations and influences the work environment. Researchers have studied leadership and organizational culture individually; however there have been less focus

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Military Technology - 2354 Words

Military Technology Technology in the military has greatly increased strength and eased the ranking among world powers and effected the development of new military weapons. The term Survival of the fittest means that the strong will succeed but the meek will not, this is the case with military technology. The U.S. has the best technology in the world, therefore we are the highest military power. Technology is a very important part of warfare. Technology is driven by the military. The armys race during the cold war, spawned some of the greatest technical achievements in human history. Space travel for example is a result of the X-plane project. The Internet was produced by the military as well. If we stop investing in military†¦show more content†¦They were built strongly and carried cannons capable of destroying enemy ships. In todays age, the aircraft carrier and battleships are the rulers of the sea. Aircraft carriers were first developed in WWII along with planes. Conventional naval guns were limited to a range of about 20 miles, but by World War II the aircraft carrier, a ship capable of launching, recovering, and storing aircraft that could themselves destroy ships had extended the battle range of surface fleets by as much as 300 miles. In doing so, it had a profound effect on naval warfare. The airplane had just begun to go to sea on the eve of World War I. In November 1910 the American scout cruiser USS Birmingham launched the first airplane ever to take off from a ship, and two months later a plane was landed on an improvised flight deck built onto the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania. In 1913 a British cruiser, HMS Hermes, was converted to carry aircraft. In 1916, flying-off decks were built aboard several British ships, and by 1918 the Royal Navy had a converted passenger liner, HMS Argus, that could land and launch planes on a flight deck extending from bow to stern. The Argus was the worlds first true through-deck aircraft carrier and was thus the prototype for all later carriers. (Britannica). Aircraft carriers carry a crew of 5500 men along with lots of state of the art technology. From tracking systems to propulsion, the whole ship is run with technology. TheShow MoreRelatedBenefits Of Military Technology On Technology1688 Words   |  7 PagesBENEFITS OF MILITARY TECHNOLOGY While violence and conflicts are often associated with military technology, its developments have actually brought us some benefits as well. An interesting fact is that the benefits of military technology in civilian applications most of the time was not part of the primary purpose when deciding to fund its development. This goes to show that the implications of a new technology being developed can go far beyond what is originally imagined. One of the inventions thatRead MoreU.s. Military : History Of Technology And Protection1568 Words   |  7 PagesENG 1123, Period 4 27 March 2017 The U.S. Military: History of Technology and Protection The U.S. military has been around since the early days of the United States. They have always been there to provide protection for its citizens. Many people are against war, but most can appreciate what soldiers do to protect this country. Military actions are not cheap though because of the equipment and technology that is required to do their job. The military is a certain service that the United StatesRead More Science, Technology and America’s Military Essay1427 Words   |  6 PagesScience, Technology and America’s Military When it comes to the latest and fastest computers there is one place that all that technology can be found, the United States Military. There is no doubt that the U.S. Military is one of, if not the most technologically advanced armed forces in the world. â€Å"Over our countries development we have changed from a â€Å"grind it out† fighting machine, to a more advanced, rapid tactical corps to meet the different battle situations found in today’s worldRead MoreEssay about Technology Used on the Military Battlefield596 Words   |  3 PagesTechnology Used on the Military Battlefield In today’s busy world of technology, where it seems like we can hardly keep up with the daily advances being made, the United States Military is posed on the cutting edge. The military spends billions of dollars each year on electronic technology research with private firms such as International Telegraph and Telephone Aerospace/Communications Division (ITT A/CD). There is a wide range of uses for computers on today’s battlefield. Two of the majorRead MoreTechnology And The Military Technology1128 Words   |  5 PagesInsurgent technology though not as advanced as the military technology was arguably more effective. The insurgent’s use of ingenious bomb technology was extremely effective against the U.S. civilians, U.S. soldiers, and the Iraqi people. It was effective against U.S. civilians because it made them want the war to stop so that the soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan would leave, which is the goal of any insurgency. â€Å"A bomb’s ability to destroy a target depends on two things: its explosive power andRead More Military Technology Essay2343 Words   |  10 PagesMilitary Technology   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Technology in the military has greatly increased strength and eased the ranking among world powers and effected the development of new military weapons. The term â€Å"Survival of the fittest† means that the strong will succeed but the meek will not, this is the case with military technology. The U.S. has the best technology in the world, therefore we are the highest military power.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Technology is a very important part of warfare. Technology is driven by the militaryRead MoreAdvanced Military Technologies544 Words   |  2 Pages21st century technologies have forever altered the military landscape. Due to the changing landscape, questions have arisen regarding the legality and ethics of the use of such technologies. Advanced military technologies such as directed energy weapons, autonomous vehicles and robots, and cyber weapons seem to seem to fall into categories of weapons not yet created or restricted, challenging the long established international humanitarian laws. (Allenby) Technology changes more rapidly than we mightRead MoreMIlitary Advantages in Technology Essay1823 Words   |  8 Pagesmore difficult. It has gone from using your smarts and your survival skills to winning a war by having the upper hand on technology. This means having the bigger and better weapons. Stronger and faster aircrafts. The military has become driven by t echnology. All military both in the United States and foreign military forces depend on technology to win wars. Overtime technology has raised to such a degree that warfare has actually come to the point that it is based on who has the most technologicalRead MoreMilitary Technology And Technological Advancements2082 Words   |  9 PagesOver the years, military technology kept on changing and has advanced from rifles to the nuclear weapons. The 20th century saw a drastic change in the military technology and military thinkers adapted to this change and took it as a way to totally transform the war. These technological advancements added new dimensions to warfare through a combination of firepower, mobility, and maneuver. Warfare has now transitioned to become the battle of wits, nerves, technology and tactics. Military thinkers developedRead MoreMilitary Technology And Its Impact Today2410 Words   |  10 PagesConnor Aitken English 8 CP 2/23/15 Burke Military Technology and Its Impact Today The True Impact of Technology Bill was in the hills of Afghanistan, approaching an enemy compound that held a high value target. This target was a rebel leader attempting to spread radical Sunni beliefs on the infidels. As a definite threat to his region and a potential threat to America he had to be taken out. This could be accomplished by Bill s squadron. If Bill s team of four have to enter the compound and eliminate

The Hangmans Horror Roger, Sadism, and Psychopathy in...

With an understanding of the inherent darkness in all men and first-hand experience with savagery and violence in World War II, William Golding used Lord of the Flies as not only a historical allegory and a pulpit from which to address the darkness in all men, but also as a metaphor and a example that no one is exempt from human nature. Golding’s characters in Lord of the Flies reflect this idea greatly, but none more so than Roger. Throughout Lord of the Flies, Golding uses the character of Roger to show the follies of mankind and the ability of all people to turn to savagery, as well as the inherent nature of man and society’s internalized acceptance of violence, stemming from Golding’s own experiences with the subject. Golding created†¦show more content†¦His physical appearance has changed and his long, grown out black hair â€Å"seemed to suit his gloomy face and made what seemed at first an unsociable remoteness into something forbidding,† ( Golding 55), creating a much more intimidating figure than he had already been, his unkempt appearance adding to his unapproachability and furtive personality. However, this chapter also shows that he is fully â€Å"aware of the lingering social conditioning† (Koopmans) of his life before the boys were stranded on the island; â€Å"Roger stooped, picked up a stone, aimed, and threw it at Henry – threw it to miss. The stone, that token of preposterous time, bounced five yards to Henry’s right and fell in the water. Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them. Yet there was a space round Henry, perhaps six yards in diameter, into which he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of the old life. Round the squatting child was the protection of parents and school and policemen and the law. Roger’s arm was conditioned by a civilization that knew nothing of him and was in ruins† (Golding 56). Roger throws the rocks at Henry aiming to miss, unable to bring himself yet to actually throw the stones at Henry to deliberately hurt him, a

Get Sample on Oil And Gas Retail Sector

Question: 1. Demonstrate the ability to analyse the factors affecting the present size and structure of the current oil and gas retail sectors and the impact of the rising price of oil. 2. Evaluate the potential of technological change on the energy retailing industry in the next decade. Answer: Introduction: The downstream oil sector in the united kingdom is comprised of 200 companies which are involved in the process of refining, distributing and marketing of the petroleum products. The companies range from oil companies to supermarket chains and even independent retail groups which are the members of the united kingdom petroleum industry association (ukpia). The oil market in the uk is categorized into two sectors; the commercial and the retail. The commercial sector involves power generators, independent fuel distributors, government agencies, public services, industrial, transport and agricultural customers and the military. The retail market includes mainly the fuels that are sold from the petroleum filling stations (pfs). It has been seen that the retail sector has undergone many downturn over the last 25 years (abraham, 2006). The number of fps declined from 18000 sites to only 8591 sites within the year 1990-2014. The uk petroleum retail market has transformed into a high volume and low business margins which is subject to increased competition due to the entry of supermarkets. There are several factors that are going to be discussed in this paper that drive the petroleum retail market in the uk petroleum retail market (akli and kim, 2014). Key business drivers in the uk petroleum retail market: There are several business drivers that affect the uk petroleum retail market which are grouped into four categories which are consumers, suppliers, competitors and government. The basic idea behind the key business drivers is diverse in nature which is critically analyzed below: Consumer needs as a business driver- it is evident from the consumer behavior that there are two factors that associate the consumers with the pfs which are convenience and the price . It is quite obvious that the consumers demand for fuel depends upon the price of fuels. With the rise in the price, there are consumers who will fill cars at the pfs where the price is comparatively less (asche, oglend and osmundsen, n.d.). It is evident from the gross sales statistics by the ukpia member companies where around 98.8 billion sales were recorded in 2012 which have declined from the previous years. During 2010-2013, the price hiked at an average rate of 11% per year but with the decline in the prices in 2013, the overall average dropped to 8%. Below is the uk petrol pump price breakdown which has increased over the years (ukpia statistical review 2014, 2014). A survey revealed that there are different kinds of response from consumers. Some of them emphasize the price factor but for others the availability and convenience of filling car ranks high. The respondents are of the view that in areas where there are pfs at every 10 minutes distance, they prefer pfs that offer cheap fuels. There were about 40% of the respondents that gave convenience of fuel refilling importance more than price. There was another characteristic that the consumers prefer is the additional offerings by the pfs like the shops, loyalty card, cash point or the services of car wash (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). When the pfs are homogeneous consumers generally chose those pfs who offer differentiated products. The general trend that the consumers generally depict is the changes in the fuel prices since the demand for fuel is inelastic hence consumers put a stress on the changes in its price (asche, oglend and osmundsen, n.d.). Fuel suppliers- it is important for the pfs to establish a sound relationship with the fuel suppliers. There are different channels through which the pfs retailers can either directly or indirectly purchase petrol and diesels lie from the supply division of the oil companies and independent suppliers (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). The relationship is typically price agreement based as both the parties must sign contract to pay the bargained price. The contract specified the fuel price to be plats plus which includes the storage and distribution cost of the fuel suppliers, thus the price of the oil increases. The distribution cost depends on the distance of the pfs from the location of the fuel suppliers (asche, osmundsen and sandsmark, 2006). There are several factors that help the pfs to decide to choose an appropriate fuel supplier which are type of contracts, payment terms, the wholesale price of the fuel and the logistics arrangement. But this platts plus contra cts have limitations like the whole sale price risk and the use of spot prices affect the retail price response of the pfs when the refined fuel price increases (asrilhant, dyson and meadows, 2007). Competition level- the brand loyalty is a significant aspect of the uk petroleum retail market that is exercised by the consumers, but it is the hypermarkets entry that increased the competition. It is evident from the statistics provided by ukpia, there were about 1347 supermarkets filling stations in the uk recorded at the end of 2013 which means that over 15% of all the filling stations are under the control of supermarkets. The chart provided proves that the supermarket sites have increased over the years (ukpia statistical review 2014, 2014). It has already been discussed that the distance and the time that is required to reach an alternative pfs, the availability and the size of the pfs and the different types of companies that are operating in the areas of the pfs affect the price competition within the petroleum retail market. The most important aspect that must be considered is the 247 fuel service to the consumers. The sales of a particular pfs depend on the different offers on fuel that are rewarded to the consumers. It has been proved that the different non-fuel sales like the sales of the engine oils, tobacco, newspapers, and food products have increased and so the fuel sales (hitchin, 2014). Consumer prefers to refuel their cars in those pfs that offer non fuel services. This consumer preference is true to the fact that they are seeking for extra benefit from the every commodity. The level of competition depends on the convenience and the size of the pfs. The more convenient is the pfs, the more is the sales of t he fuels of that particular pfs (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). The level of competition has increase so the pfs must ensure that they must compete on the basis of non-fuel services like increasing the availability of the fuel pumps, access to parking lots on the sites of the pfs. Thus, it is true that the recent business model must focus on the non-fuel sales which are recorded to be higher than the fuel sales (jian and bing, 2014). Government policies- one of the most important key drivers of the petroleum retail market is the government regulations and policies which have significant impact on the behavior of the consumers, producers and investors. The policies are grouped into three categories like fiscal drivers, environmental and safety measures and other regulatory policies. The fiscal drivers include the business rates, fuel duty and vat and the corporate tax which affect the fuel prices. In this regard the higher the vat and fuel duty, the higher will be price of the fuel which reduces the profit margins but the corporate tax has decreased which implies that the pfs businesses that make low profits have to pay less profit rate (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). The vat was lowered to 15% in the year 2009 but was increased to 20% in the year 2011. The second fiscal driver is the environmental and safety standards which include the e10 introduction which increases the share of renewable sourc es of energy that must be consumed by the transport sector and the vapor recovery which aims to reduce the volatile organic compounds. The policies must also cover other environmental concern that affect pfs business. It has been proved that the reductions in emission have been achieved by the after-treatment technologies. It has been proved that 90% of the emissions in 2012 were lower than the emissions in 1989 in which were reported to be at its peak. As such there is no restriction on the pollution level as whole at the pfs sites which hampers the environment. The vehicular emission and the pollution level has been depicted in the following charts which proves that both the mission and pollution has declined over the years (ukpia statistical review 2014, 2014). The other regulatory policies are also important within the petroleum retail sector as it affects the pfs status directly (johnson, curtright and willis, 2013). The other regulatory policies include national emergency plan for fuel, planning system and the measuring instruments directive which support the pfs in an improved way. The government must also focus on the extra cost of storing and refining the fuel so that the price of the fuel can be regulated by the government and should not be very high. Implications- the retail price of the fuel is the most important driver of the market which the consumers are highly concerned. The consumers have slightly emphasized the convenience factor. The relationship with the suppliers is important as they identify the different types of association between the pfs and the suppliers. The next section is crucial for the petroleum retail market which is the competition. The competition has increased due to the hypermarkets who offer different non-fuel services which attract a lot of consumers (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). The different government regulation and policies either benefit or affect the pfs business. The negative impact of the government regulation includes the vat and fuel duty, the environmental regulations and safety standards. On other hand the decrease in the corporation tax has benefitted pfs business (mineev, 2010). Factors affecting the present size and structure of the oil and gas sector: The size of the oil and the gas sector is influenced by the increased competition from the entry of hypermarkets. The hypermarkets have the ability to invest more in the non-fuel services to attract more customers. Thus, the size of the pfs has declined drastically from 13258 to 9000 from the year 2001 to 2011 (tordo et al., n.d.) Which is depicted below (ukpia statistical review 2014, 2014): The other factor that affects the size of the oil and gas sector is the traditional business model of the independent dealers to which they face pressure and some of them have closed down their pfs. Technological change on the petroleum retail sector in the uk: The technological change is directed towards the generation of the energy from the fuels which is in the form of gases instead of the solid fuels. The new technologies support the pfs and the oil sector as they help to identify, develop and produce the reserves which increase the supply within the sector (study of the uk petroleum retail market, 2012). The production and the drilling process in the oil and gas industry have changed drastically owing to the technological change. In this regard the 4d seismic or time lapse monitoring which are important for the mapping of the production. Thus, it can be said that the technological change in the oil and gas retail sector has not only increased the profitability but also enhanced the sustainability within the sector (uk oil and gas development potential assessed, 2000). Conclusion: The key drivers of the business in the uk petroleum retail market have been discussed in this paper. The key drivers have been segregated in four groups which are the consumers, suppliers, competition and the government policies. All the factors affect the retail sector differently. It can be concluded that the hypermarkets have been influencing the market negatively to which the pfs must formulate strategies to overcome the competition by offering non fuel sales at the pfs and provision of other benefits at the pfs site as this would attract customers and thus increase the sales of the pfs. The government also can play important roles to benefit the pfs as well as the environment. The policies on environmental standards are crucial as it will enhance the environment. The government must incorporate policies to decrease the air pollution at the pfs site (uk panics over gas, 2005)s. The size of the pfs has decreased which must be fostered only when the government and the pfs themselve s can reduce the competition from the hypermarkets by different strategies. Once the competition is reduced, the pfs would also attract customer and increase the sale and restructure the pfs closure. This will increase the availability of the fuel service within a locality. 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